Amateur wrestling

Amateur wrestling is the most widespread form of sport wrestling.[citation needed] There are two international wrestling styles performed in the Olympic Games under the supervision of FILA (Federation Internationale des Luttes Associees or International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles): Greco-Roman and freestyle. Freestyle is possibly derived from the English Lancashire style. A similar style, commonly called collegiate (also known as scholastic or folkstyle), is practiced in colleges and universities, secondary schools, middle schools, and among younger age groups in the United States. Where the style is not specified, this article refers to the international styles of competition on a mat. Scoring Greco-Roman and freestyle differ in what holds are permitted; in Greco-Roman, the wrestlers are permitted to hold and attack only above the waist. In both Greco-Roman and freestyle, points can be scored in the following ways: Takedown: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a neutral position. Reversal: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a defensive position. Exposure or the Danger Position: A wrestler exposing his opponent's back to the mat, also awarded if one's back is to the mat but the wrestler is not pinned. Penalty: Various infractions (e.g. striking the opponent, acting with brutality or intent to injure, using illegal holds, etc.). (Under the 2004–2005 changes to the international styles, a wrestler whose opponent takes an injury time-out receives one point unless the injured wrestler is bleeding.)[1] Any wrestler stepping out of bounds while standing in the neutral position during a match is penalized by giving his opponent a point.[1] [edit]Scores only awarded in collegiate wrestling As in the international styles, collegiate wrestling awards points for takedowns and reversals. Penalty points are awarded in collegiate wrestling according to the current rules, which penalize moves that would impair the life or limb of the opponent. However, the manner in which infractions are penalized and points awarded to the offended wrestler differ in some aspects from the international styles. Collegiate wrestling also awards points for: Near Fall: This is similar to the exposure (or danger position) points given in Greco-Roman and freestyle. A wrestler scores points for holding his opponent's shoulders or scapulae to the mat for several seconds while his opponent is still not pinned. Time Advantage or Riding Time: On the college level, the wrestler who controlled his opponent on the mat for the most time is awarded a point; provided that the difference of the two wrestlers' time advantage is at least one minute. Escape: A wrestler getting from a defensive position to a neutral position. This is no longer a way to score in freestyle or Greco-Roman. Takedown: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a neutral position. Reversal: A wrestler gaining control over his opponent from a defensive position. Exposure or the Danger Position: A wrestler exposing his opponent's back to the mat, also awarded if one's back is to the mat but the wrestler is not pinned. Penalty: Various infractions (e.g. striking the opponent, acting with brutality or intent to injure, using illegal holds, etc.). (Under the 2004–2005 changes to the international styles, a wrestler whose opponent takes an injury time-out receives one point unless the injured wrestler is bleeding.)