Competitive diving

Most diving competitions consist of three disciplines: 1 m and 3 m springboards, and the platform. Competitive athletes are divided by gender, and often by age group. In platform events, competitors are allowed to perform their dives on either the five, seven and a half (generally just called seven) or ten meter towers. In major diving meets, including the Olympic Games and the World Championships, platform diving is from the 10 meter height. Divers have to perform a set number of dives according to established requirements, including somersaults and twists. Divers are judged on whether and how well they completed all aspects of the dive, the conformance of their body to the requirements of the dive, and the amount of splash created by their entry to the water. A possible score out of ten is broken down into three points for the takeoff, three for the flight, and three for the entry, with one more available to give the judges flexibility. The raw score is multiplied by a difficulty factor, derived from the number and combination of movements attempted. The diver with the highest total score after a sequence of dives is declared the winner. [edit]Synchronized diving Synchronized diving was adopted as an Olympic sport in 2000. Two divers form a team and perform dives simultaneously. The dives are identical. It used to be possible to dive opposites but this is no longer part of competitive synchronized diving; it was called a pinwheel. For example, one diver would perform a forward dive and the other an inward dive in the same position, or one would do a reverse and the other a back movement. In these events, the diving would be judged both on the quality of execution and the synchronicity Ц in timing of take-off and entry, height and forward travel. [edit]Scoring the dive There are rules governing the scoring of a dive. Usually a score considers three elements of the dive: the approach, the flight, and the entry. The primary factors affecting the scoring are: if a hand-stand is required, the length of time and quality of the hold the height of the diver at the apex of the dive, with extra height resulting in a higher score the distance of the diver from the diving apparatus throughout the dive (a diver must not

e dangerously close, should not be too far away, but should ideally be within 2 feet (0.61 m) of the platform) the properly defined body position of the diver according to the dive being performed, including pointed toes and feet touching at all times the proper amounts of rotation and revolution upon completion of the dive and entry into the water angle of entry Ц a diver should enter the water straight, without any angle. Many judges award divers for the amount of splash created by the diver on entry, with less splash resulting in a higher score. To reduce the subjectivity of scoring in major meets, panels of five or seven judges are assembled. If five judges then the highest and lowest scores are discarded and the middle three are summed and multiplied by the degree of difficulty (DD), which is determined from a combination of the moves undertaken, in which position and from what height). In major international events, there are seven judges in which case the highest and lowest scores are again discarded and the middle five are summed, then ratioed by 3?5, and multiplied by the DD, so as to provide consistent comparison with 5-judge events. Accordingly, it is extremely difficult for one judge to manipulate scores. This seven-judge procedure has been modified as of the 2012 London Olympics: rather than eliminating one high and one low award and then reducing the total by 3?5 as in previous international events, the two highest awards and the two lowest are disregarded, leaving three to be summed and multiplied by the difficulty rating. There is a general misconception about scoring and judging. In serious meets, the absolute score is somewhat meaningless. It is the relative score, not the absolute score that wins meets. Accordingly, good judging implies consistent scoring across the dives. Specifically, if a judge consistently gives low scores for all divers, or consistently gives high scores for the same divers, the judging will yield fair relative results and will cause divers to place in the correct order. However, absolute scores have significance to the individual divers. Besides the obvious instances of setting records, absolute scores are also used for rankings and qualifications for higher level meets.