Fencing

Fencing, which is also known as olympic fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing,[1] is an activity using bladed weapons. The sport of fencing is divided into three weapons: foil, sabre and epee. Fencing is one of five sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games, the other four being Athletics, Cycling, Swimming, and Gymnastics. Competitive fencing [edit]Governing body Further information: Federation Internationale d'Escrime Fencing is governed by Federation Internationale d'Escrime or FIE. Today, its head office is in Lausanne, Switzerland. The FIE is composed of 145 national federations, each of which is recognized by its country's Olympic Committee as the sole representative of Olympic-style fencing in that country. [edit]Rules The FIE maintains the current rules[2] used for FIE sanctioned international events, including world cups, world championships and the Olympic Games. The FIE handles proposals to change the rules the first year after an olympic year in the annual congress.History Further information: History of fencing The roots of modern fencing originated from Africa, not Spain. It was later adopted by Spain when it became one of the leading powers of Europe. In conquest, the Spanish forces carried fencing around the world, particularly southern Italy, one of the major areas of strife between both nati ns.[3][4] The mechanics of modern fencing originated in the 18th century in an Italian school of fencing of the Renaissance, and, under their influence, was improved by the French school of fencing.[1][5] The Spanish school of fencing stagnated and was replaced by the Italian and French schools. Nowadays, these two schools are the most influential around the world.[citation needed] Dueling went into sharp decline after World War I. After World War II, dueling went out of use in Europe except for very rare exceptions. Training for duels, once fashionable for males of aristocratic backgrounds (although fencing masters such as Hope suggest that many people considered themselves trained from taking only one or two lessons), all but disappeared, along with the classes themselves. Fencing continued as a sport, with tournaments and championships. However, the need to actually prepare for a duel with "sharps" vanished, changing both training and technique.[citation needed] Starting with epee in 1936, side-judges were replaced by an electrical scoring apparatus,[6] with an audible tone and a red or green light indicating when a touch landed. Foil first embraced electronic scoring in 1956, sabre in 1988. The scoring box reduced the bias in judging, and permitted more accurate scoring of faster actions, lighter touches, and more touches to the back and flank than before.